Salem is located in northeast Ohio, in Perry Township, Columbiana County, approximately 60 miles southeast of Cleveland, 60 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, 20 miles southwest of Youngstown, and 25 miles east of Canton. At the 2010 census the city's population was 12,303.  Salem was founded by Zadok Street and John Straughan in 1806. The word "Salem" means 'peace' and comes from the term 'Jerusalem'. Many of the early townspeople were Quakers, who are still honored today by the Salem City Schools "Quakers" sports teams.

Active in the abolitionist movement of the early to mid 19th century, Salem acted as a hub for the American Underground Railroad, with several homes serving as "stations", and was the site of the Western Headquarters for the Anti-Slavery Association. TheSalem Historical Societyconducts periodicQuakertown Trolley Tours and Ghost Walksin celebration of its past historical significance in the abolitionist movement.

In April 1850 Salem hosted the first Women's Rights Convention in Ohio, the second such convention in the United States. J. Elizabeth Jones delivered an address and men were refused attendance for the two-day proceedings.

Over its history, Salem thrived on an industrial-based economy. For several decades the largest corporations located in Salem were American Standard, Eljer,Mullins Manufacturing Corp, Deming Pump and Salem China. Today, American Standard and several tool-and-die manufacturers remain.

Salem is served by the Salem City School Districtin five facilities: Southeast Elementary, Reilly Elementary, Buckeye Elementary, Salem Junior High, and Salem High School. The Salem City Schools have earned the designation of "Excellent" from the Ohio Department of Education. Additionally, Kent State University operates a regional campus in Salem, and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Youngstown operates St. Paul Elementary School in Salem.

There are several parks located throughout Salem for all to enjoy. Centennial Park (35 acres) contains picnic shelters, grills, lighted basketball and tennis courts, playgrounds, two ball fields, scenic areas, and large shade trees. The outdoor pool is open from Memorial Day through Labor Day, but the park is open and used all year.

Waterworth Memorial Park (37 acres) contains the Memorial Civic Center. W. H. Mullins Park (2 acres)is a small children's play area with swings, slides, a large sand box and picnic areas. Kelley Park (5 acres) is a school-park complex, with Prospect School located on the grounds. The only lighted softball field in the community is located here along with summer playground equipment. It is also an ideal place for winter sledding.

Eagleton's Glen Recreation Area (Undeveloped - 70 acres) located six miles south of Salem, is the site of the Teegarden covered bridge. At one time, a small community was here, and a mill sat by the iron bridge just north of the covered bridge and the Greenway Bike Trail goes through here.

Salem City Lake (220 acres) is Salem's main water supply and also a source ofoutdoor recreation for boating, fishing, hiking, and picnicking. It is open from mid-April the last Sunday in September.

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